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Gary Wu

Gary Wu

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About Me

CTO and Co-Founder of FoundHealth.
Founder of Paleo for Life. www.paleoforlife.org

Edited Acerola Overview: References 8 years ago

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Edited Acerola Overview: References 8 years ago
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The lipid panel, otherwise known as the cholesterol test, is one of several lab tests that your doctor may order for you as part of your routine physical. The results of a lipid panel typically include the following:

  • Total Cholesterol (TC)
  • Triglycerides (TG)
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • Estimated LDL Cholesterol

Computing the Estimated LDL Cholesterol

In lipid panel results, LDL cholesterol is usually "estimated" or "calculated". Whereas total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are cheap and easy to directly measure, the LDL cholesterol is expensive to directly measure. Because of this, the LDL cholesterol is usually provided as a number computed using the Friedewald equation:

Friedewald (1972) Formula: LDL = TC - HDL - TG/5.0 (mg/dL)

The issue with the Friedewald equation is that it is only generally accurate when Triglycerides are between 150 mg/dL and 400 mg/dL. For someone on a Paleo or a low-carb diet, the triglycerides are usually below 100 mg/dL, and in this range the Friedewald equation grossly over-estimates the LDL concentration. For cases where the triglycerides are below 100 mg/dL, a more accurate "Iranian" formula (so named since the research was conducted in Iran) has been developed:

"Iranian" (2008) Formula: LDL = TC/1.19 + TG/1.9 – HDL/1.1 – 38 (mg/dL)

Most lab reports still provide the estimated LDL cholesterol using the Friedwald equation, so it is important to compute your own estimated LDL if you and your doctor are relying on the LDL result to determine a course of treatment.

Interpreting the Results

Currently (as of 2010), of all the results you get from the lipid panel, the most significant indicator of your health risk is the ratio of triglycerides over HDL, the lower the better.

Triglycerides / HDL :

  • 2 or less: ideal
  • 4: average
  • 6 or higher: high risk

In order to improve (reduce) the ratio, you should seek to reduce your triglycerides and increase your HDL cholesterol. Triglycerides is reduced by reducing your carbohydrate intake. HDL is increased by increasing your intake of healthy saturated fats. Both of these are fully satisfied by the Paleo diet.

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The lipid panel, otherwise known as the cholesterol test, is one of several lab tests that your doctor may order for you as part of your routine physical. The results of a lipid panel typically include the following:

  • Total Cholesterol (TC)
  • Triglycerides (TG)
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • Estimated LDL Cholesterol

Computing the Estimated LDL Cholesterol

In lipid panel results, LDL cholesterol is usually "estimated" or "calculated". Whereas total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are cheap and easy to directly measure, the LDL cholesterol is expensive to directly measure. Because of this, the LDL cholesterol is usually provided as a number computed using the Friedewald equation:

Friedewald (1972) Formula: LDL = TC - HDL - TG/5.0 (mg/dL)

The issue with the Friedewald equation is that it is only generally accurate when Triglycerides are between 150 mg/dL and 400 mg/dL. For someone on a Paleo or a low-carb diet, the triglycerides are usually below 100 mg/dL, and in this range the Friedewald equation grossly over-estimates the LDL concentration. For cases where the triglycerides are below 100 mg/dL, a more accurate "Iranian" formula (so named since the research was conducted in Iran) has been developed:

"Iranian" (2008) Formula: LDL = TC/1.19 + TG/1.9 – HDL/1.1 – 38 (mg/dL)

Most lab reports still provide the estimated LDL cholesterol using the Friedwald equation, so it is important to compute your own estimated LDL if you and your doctor are relying on the LDL result to determine a course of treatment.

Interpreting the Results

Currently (as of 2010), of all the results you get from the lipid panel, the most significant indicator of your health risk is the ratio of triglycerides over HDL, the lower the better.

Triglycerides / HDL :

  • 2 or less: ideal
  • 4: average
  • 6 or higher: high risk

In order to improve (reduce) the ratio, you should seek to reduce your triglycerides and increase your HDL cholesterol. Triglycerides is reduced by reducing your carbohydrate intake. HDL is increased by increasing your intake of healthy saturated fats. Both of these are fully satisfied by the Paleo diet.

... (more)

The lipid panel, otherwise known as the cholesterol test, is one of several lab tests that your doctor may order for you as part of your routine physical. The results of a lipid panel typically include the following:

  • Total Cholesterol (TC)
  • Triglycerides (TG)
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • Estimated LDL Cholesterol

Computing the Estimated LDL Cholesterol

In lipid panel results, LDL cholesterol is usually "estimated" or "calculated". Whereas total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are cheap and easy to directly measure, the LDL cholesterol is expensive to directly measure. Because of this, the LDL cholesterol is usually provided as a number computed using the Friedewald equation:

Friedewald (1972) Formula: LDL = TC - HDL - TG/5.0 (mg/dL)

The issue with the Friedewald equation is that it is only generally accurate when Triglycerides are between 150 mg/dL and 400 mg/dL. For someone on a Paleo or a low-carb diet, the triglycerides are usually below 100 mg/dL, and in this range the Friedewald equation grossly over-estimates the LDL concentration. For cases where the triglycerides are below 100 mg/dL, a more accurate "Iranian" formula (so named since the research was conducted in Iran) has been developed:

"Iranian" (2008) Formula: LDL = TC/1.19 + TG/1.9 – HDL/1.1 – 38 (mg/dL)

Most lab reports still provide the estimated LDL cholesterol using the Friedwald equation, so it is important to compute your own estimated LDL if you and your doctor are relying on the LDL result to determine a course of treatment.

Interpreting the Results

Currently (as of 2010), of all the results you get from the lipid panel, the most significant indicator of your health risk is the ratio of triglycerides over HDL, the lower the better.

Triglycerides / HDL :

  • 2 or less: ideal
  • 4: average
  • 6 or higher: high risk

In order to improve (reduce) the ratio, you should seek to reduce your triglycerides and increase your HDL cholesterol. Triglycerides is reduced by reducing your carbohydrate intake. HDL is increased by increasing your intake of healthy saturated fats. Both of these are fully satisfied by the Paleo diet.

... (more)

The most commonly reported symptoms upon the adoption of a Paleo diet are nausea and headaches; these are the withdrawal symptoms of carbohydrate addiction. Usually these last up to two weeks after you go "cold turkey". People usually report improved mental clarity and better energy levels after the initial two weeks, but it will depend on how bad your carbohydrate addiction was in the first place.

The brain takes about 40 days to convert from primarily burning glucose for energy to primarily burning ketone bodies. This is just FYI as it may or may not directly contribute to any change in your subjective feelings of wellbeing.

The most commonly reported symptoms upon the adoption of a Paleo diet are nausea and headaches; these are the withdrawal symptoms of carbohydrate addiction. Usually these last up to two weeks after...

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The core rules of Paleo are:

  • Avoid sugar
  • Avoid grains, legumes, tubers
  • Avoid refined seed and vegetable oils

A corollary is:

  • Healthy fats are the preferred source of energy; saturated fats are most preferred, followed by mono-unsaturated fats

These rules do not automatically rule out vegetarianism. I have not been a vegetarian myself, so I can only offer some general guidelines, and hope that they may be helpful to you.

Probably the biggest challenge when contemplating a vegetarian Paleo diet is around getting enough healthy fats. If eggs and dairy are allowed, then it's easy: eat plenty of eggs, butter, ghee, cheese, cream, etc., which should provide more than sufficient variety and quantity of saturated fats. If eggs and dairy are not allowed, your chief sources of fat would need to be coconut milk, coconut oil, or palm kernel oil. On top of these, you can always add avocados or olive oil which are mono-unsaturated.

Another source of fats to consider would be nuts: macadamias and almonds are two good ones that come to mind. Nuts do have appreciable amounts of lectins, however, so they may not work well for everyone, and I would advise consuming nuts in limited quantities.

The next concern would be around getting a complete complement of amino acids. You do not really need that much protein in absolute quantity, but you need to ensure that the types of vegetables that you eat provide the right mix of amino acids. Unfortunately I'm not knowledgeable in getting the right amino acid mix from vegetables, but I assume this is a topic you are already familiar with. Here again it is much easier if eggs and dairy are allowed.

If you find that you need to violate some of the core rules, the safest to add back from the "avoid list" would be tubers such as yams or taro. White rice seems to be the least problematic of all grains if you absolutely must eat some. Wheat and other gluten grains are the worst offenders, and I would not advise eating wheat under any circumstance.

Lastly, make sure you supplement your B12 if you don't eat eggs or dairy.

The core rules of Paleo are:

  • Avoid sugar
  • Avoid grains, legumes, tubers
  • Avoid refined seed and vegetable oils

A corollary is:

  • Healthy fats are the preferred source of energy;...
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(more)

The biggest difference, in practice, is around refined seed and vegetable oils. In Atkins they are okay, whereas in Paleo they are a big no-no.

Atkins revolves around the reduction of carbohydrate intake. Paleo revolves around eating natural pre-agricultural foods. Atkins is low-carb. Paleo is usually, but not necessarily, low-carb. Refined seed and vegetables oils are okay in Atkin's since they are low-carb. They are not okay in Paleo since they are neolithic frankenfoods. Paleo prefers grass-fed beef and pasture-raised poultry over their conventionally raised counterparts. Atkin's doesn't make such distinctions.

So, something like mayonnaise would be okay on Atkins but not okay on Paleo. You can find "Atkins-Advantage" granola bars in stores; such things are completely preposterous from the Paleo perspective.

A disclaimer: I know Paleo pretty well, but I have not studied Atkins in detail, so my answer may be incomplete.

The biggest difference, in practice, is around refined seed and vegetable oils. In Atkins they are okay, whereas in Paleo they are a big no-no.

Atkins revolves around the reduction of carbohydrate...

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The research I've seen indicates that high protein consumption does not pose adverse effects if your kidneys are healthy. If your kidneys are already damaged, however, high protein consumption can further the damage.

If I recall correctly, the most common causes for kidney damage are high blood glucose and high blood pressure.

As an aside: A Paleo diet should not be a high protein diet. It should be a high fat diet.

The research I've seen indicates that high protein consumption does not pose adverse effects if your kidneys are healthy. If your kidneys are already damaged, however, high protein consumption can...

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Even though there are many variations on the Paleo theme, at a high level all Paleo diets agree on a few key principles: only eat foods that can be picked or hunted in nature, avoid foods that cannot be eaten raw, and prefer meat products from animals fed their natural food. In practice, this translates into the following:

  • Avoid sugar, high fructose corn syrup, and refined seed and vegetable oils as these are not available in nature, and only become available after heavy industrial processing.
  • Avoid grains (particularly wheat), legumes (particularly soy), and starchy tubers (such as potatoes) as these foods cannot be eaten raw.
  • Prefer grass-fed and grass-finished beef over grain-fed beef.
  • Prefer pasture-raised poultry over conventionally raised poultry.
  • Natural fats like butter, coconut oil, lard, and tallow are generally considered neutral but superior to refined seed and vegetable oils.

Different variations of Paleo diets have differing philosophies on topics like saturated fat and dairy products. Each individual is recommended to study the respective dietary guidelines and see which one works best for him or her.

Note that Paleo diets do not prescribe that all foods be eaten raw. Foods that cannot be eaten raw should be avoided, but remaining foods may be eaten either cooked or raw.

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The adherents of Paleo diets have reported the following improvements in their health markers:

  • Reduction of body fat percentage and increase in muscle mass with no change in exercise.
  • Reduction of fasting blood glucose levels, in some cases allowing for the elimination of diabetes medication.
  • Reduction in triglyceride levels and increase in HDL levels, in some cases allowing for the elimination of cholesterol medication.
  • Reduction in blood pressure, in some cases allowing for the elimination of blood pressure medication.

These health markers are the key predictors of chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. This is why it is important for us to share the Paleo wisdom with the public, and help combat the chronic disease epidemic that is sweeping the industrialized world today.

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Even though there are many variations on the Paleo theme, at a high level all Paleo diets agree on a few key principles: only eat foods that can be picked or hunted in nature, avoid foods that cannot be eaten raw, and prefer meat products from animals fed their natural food. In practice, this translates into the following:

  • Avoid sugar, high fructose corn syrup, and refined seed and vegetable oils as these are not available in nature, and only become available after heavy industrial processing.
  • Avoid grains (particularly wheat), legumes (particularly soy), and starchy tubers (such as potatoes) as these foods cannot be eaten raw.
  • Prefer grass-fed and grass-finished beef over grain-fed beef.
  • Prefer pasture-raised poultry over conventionally raised poultry.
  • Natural fats like butter, coconut oil, lard, and tallow are generally considered neutral but superior to refined seed and vegetable oils.

Different variations of Paleo diets have differing philosophies on topics like saturated fat and dairy products. Each individual is recommended to study the respective dietary guidelines and see which one works best for him or her.

Note that Paleo diets do not prescribe that all foods be eaten raw. Foods that cannot be eaten raw should be avoided, but remaining foods may be eaten either cooked or raw.

... (more)