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Paige Reddan

Paige Reddan
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There are several combinations of oral medications for type 2 diabetes available. The purpose of combining these medications is simply for the ease of taking only one medication instead of two. The medications themselves work in the same way they would if taken separately. However they may be more costly when combined.

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Edited Insulin Overview: How It Works 9 years ago

Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the body by the pancreas. It is normally secreted throughout the day and after food is eaten to help normalize blood glucose levels. Insulin "guides" blood glucose up to the cell wall which allows it to enter the cell and provide energy to the cell, thus the body.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin production by the body may not be enough to achieve good glucose control so injected insulin is needed. It is often used in addition to oral medication because the need to reduce insulin resistance still may exist. Also the continued use of metformin is necessary to quiet the livers desire to produce too much extra glucose. Insulin is generally started with one injection each evening, to see if desired glucose results can be accomplished. Adding insulin injections at different times of the day may be necessary to acheive the best blood glucose control.

There are various types of injected insulin used to try and best mimic the patterns of secretion no longer achieved by the pancreas. Short or rapid- acting insulin is used to cover food eaten and bring down high blood glucose levels quickly and requires multiple injections each day. Intermediate-acting insulin is used to keep glucose levels down between meals and overnight and requires two injections each day. Long-acting insulin works similarly to the intermediate-acting insulin in that it works to keep glucose levels down throughout the day and overnight, however it lasts longer and generally requires only one injection each evening.

... (more)
Edited Insulin Overview: How It Works 9 years ago

Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the body by the pancreas. It is normally secreted throughout the day and after food is eaten to help normalize blood glucose levels. Insulin "guides" blood glucose up to the cell wall which allows it to enter the cell and provide energy to the cell, thus the body.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin production by the body may not be enough to achieve good glucose control so injected insulin is needed. It is often used in addition to oral medication because the need to reduce insulin resistance still may exist. Also the continued use of metformin is necessary to quiet the livers desire to produce too much extra glucose. Insulin is generally started with one injection each evening, to see if desired glucose results can be accomplished. Adding insulin injections at different times of the day may be necessary to acheive the best blood glucose control.

There are various types of injected insulin used to try and best mimic the patterns of secretion no longer achieved by the pancreas. Short or rapid- acting insulin is used to cover food eaten and bring down high blood glucose levels quickly and requires multiple injections each day. Intermediate-acting insulin is used to keep glucose levels down between meals and overnight and requires two injections each day. Long-acting insulin works similarly to the intermediate-acting insulin in that it works to keep glucose levels down throughout the day and overnight, however it lasts longer and generally requires only one injection each evening.

... (more)
Edited TZD Overview: How It Works 9 years ago

TZDs, or thiazolidinediones, work by increasing the muscles cells sensitivity to insulin. Resistance to the action of insulin, or insulin resistance, significantly contributes to high blood glucose in type 2 diabetes. TZDs help to sensitize the cells to insulin to allow circulating glucose levels to attempt to normalize.

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Secretagogues work by increasing the production of insulin by the pancreas. They work only when the person with type 2 diabetes has some remaining insulin producing cells on the pancreas. Generally after having diabetes for 5 - 10 years these cells are no longer able to produce insulin therefore the secretagogue is ineffective.

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Biquanides, or metformin, works by decreasing the liver's production of glucose. One role the liver plays is to take its stored glucose and dump it into the blood stream to be used for energy when glucose is needed. In type 2 diabetes, the liver can overproduce glucose and therefore contribute to high blood glucose levels. Metformin is a recommended medication to begin at the diagnosis of diabetes.

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  1. Mensing, C. et al. (2006). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education. Chicago: AADE
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Mensing, C. et al. (2006). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education. Chicago: AADE

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Mensing, C. et al. (2006). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education. Chicago: AADE

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Mensing, C. et al. (2006). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education. Chicago: AADE

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Mensing, C. et al. (2006). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education. Chicago: AADE

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Fonseca, V.A. (2006). Clinical Diabetes: Translating Research into Practice. Philidelphia: Saunders.

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