Psychodynamic Models- Focuses on unexpressed rage and the inadequate processing of aggression of an individual combined with an overly punitive superego.1 Also focuses on depression as a disturbance of self-esteem in the context of failed interpersonal relationships. These childhood relationships are internalized and reactivated in adulthood with the onset of depression.2
Attachment Theory- Focuses on the role that loss plays in precipitating depression in humans and animals.3
Object Relations Theory- Associates depression with problematic separation-individuation experiences and the failure to develop self-soothing introspection processes.4
Learned Helplessness Model- Depression is seen to emerge when people (or animals) perceive that "No matter what I do, I have no ability to escape or change bad experiences."5
Cognitive Model- Certain life experiences contribute to the development of pervasive cognitive schemas or cognitive distortions-- negative attitudes and expectations that automatically influence ongoing perceptions, conclusions, and predictions about the future.6
- Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. In vol. 14 of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press, 1957.
- Gabbard, G. O. (2000). Psychodynamic psychiatry in clinical practice. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.
- Bowlby, J. (1986). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.
- Mahler, M., et al. (1975). The psychological birth of the human infant: Symbiosis and individuation. New York: Basic Books.
- Seligman. M. E. P. (1990). Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books.
- Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
FoundHealth has 33 treatments for Depression!
See all Depression Treatment options and start building your care plan today.