Diindolylmethane
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Diindolylmethane Usage

Written by FoundHealth.

Therapeutic Uses

Numerous test-tube and animal studies hint that DIM is might help prevent various types of cancer, especially breast, cervical, prostate, and uterine cancer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 However, this evidence is far too preliminary to serve as the basis for recommending that anyone use DIM. As with many proposed cancer-preventing substances, there are also circumstances in which DIM might actually increase the risk of cancer. 16 17 Some of DIM’s apparent anticancer benefits appear to derive from its complex interactions with estrogen. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 DIM appears to alter liver function in such a manner that an increased amount of estrogen becomes metabolized into inactive forms. In addition, DIN blocks certain effects of estrogen on cells; however, it may enhance other effects of estrogen. The overall effect is far too complex and poorly understood to be described as “balancing estrogen in the body,” which is what many websites say about DIM.

DIM also appears to have an anti-testosterone effect, which could make it helpful for preventing or treating breast cancer. 25 Again, on some websites this effect has been over-optimistically termed “balancing testosterone levels.”

Highly preliminary evidence hints that DIM may offer benefit for diseases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). These include cervical dysplasia and respiratory papillomatosis. 26 According to some manufacturers, DIM can enhance sexual function in men or women , and also enhance sports performance . However, there is no evidence that it actually works.

References

  1. Chang YC, Riby J, Chang GH, Peng BC, Firestone G, Bjeldanes LF. Cytostatic and antiestrogenic effects of 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)-3,3'-diindolylmethane, a major in vivo product of dietary indole-3-carbinol. Biochem Pharmacol. 58(5):825-34.
  2. Chen DZ, Qi M, Auborn KJ, Carter TH. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and in murine HPV16-transgenic preneoplastic cervical epithelium. J Nutr. 131(12):3294-302.
  3. Chen I, Hsieh T, Thomas T, Safe S. Identification of estrogen-induced genes downregulated by AhR agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using suppression subtractive hybridization. Gene. 262(1-2):207-14.
  4. Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane. Carcinogenesis. 19(9):1631-9.
  5. Dalessandri KM, Firestone GL, Fitch MD, Bradlow HL, Bjeldanes LF. Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 50(2):161-7.
  6. Gamet-Payrastre L, Lumeau S, Gasc N, Cassar G, Rollin P, Tulliez J. Selective cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of glucosinolates hydrolysis products on human colon cancer cells in vitro. Anticancer Drugs. 9(2):141-8.
  7. Ge X, Yannai S, Rennert G, Gruener N, Fares FA. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 228(1):153-8.
  8. Hong C, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptotic effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 63(6):1085-97.
  9. Le HT, Schaldach CM, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 278(23):21136-45.
  10. Leong H, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Cytostatic effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in human endometrial cancer cells result from an estrogen receptor-mediated increase in transforming growth factor-alpha expression. Carcinogenesis. 22(11):1809-17.
  11. Lord RS, Bongiovanni B, Bralley JA. Estrogen metabolism and the diet-cancer connection: rationale for assessing the ratio of urinary hydroxylated estrogen metabolites. Altern Med Rev. 7(2):112-29.
  12. McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee JE, Safe SH. Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats. BreastCancer Res Treat. 2001;66:147–57.
  13. McDougal A, Sethi Gupta M, Ramamoorthy K, Sun G, Safe SH. Inhibition of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor growth and other estrogen-dependent responses by symmetrical dihalo-substituted analogs of diindolylmethane. Cancer Lett. 151(2):169-79.
  14. Nachshon-Kedmi M, Yannai S, Fares FA. Induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, by 3,3'-diindolylmethane through the mitochondrial pathway. Br J Cancer. 91(7):1358-63.
  15. Nachshon-Kedmi M, Yannai S, Haj A, Fares FA. Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 41(6):745-52.
  16. Ritter CL, Prigge WF, Reichert MA, Malejka-Giganti D. Oxidations of 17beta-estradiol and estrone and their interconversions catalyzed by liver, mammary gland and mammary tumor after acute and chronic treatment of rats with indole-3-carbinol or beta-naphthoflavone. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001;79:519–32.
  17. Dashwood RH. Indole-3-carbinol: anticarcinogen or tumor promoter in brassica vegetables? Chem Biol Interact. 1998;110:1–5.
  18. Dalessandri KM, Firestone GL, Fitch MD, Bradlow HL, Bjeldanes LF. Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 50(2):161-7.
  19. Bradlow HL, Sepkovic DW, Telang NT, Osborne MP. Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 889():204-13.
  20. Ge X, Yannai S, Rennert G, Gruener N, Fares FA. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 228(1):153-8.
  21. Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane. Carcinogenesis. 19(9):1631-9.
  22. Chen I, Hsieh T, Thomas T, Safe S. Identification of estrogen-induced genes downregulated by AhR agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using suppression subtractive hybridization. Gene. 262(1-2):207-14.
  23. McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee JE, Safe SH. Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 66(2):147-57.
  24. Le HT, Schaldach CM, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 278(23):21136-45.
  25. Le HT, Schaldach CM, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 278(23):21136-45.
  26. Chen DZ, Qi M, Auborn KJ, Carter TH. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and in murine HPV16-transgenic preneoplastic cervical epithelium. J Nutr. 131(12):3294-302.
 
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