Hypertension and Folate
Folate, or folic acid, is a B vitamin that is best known for its role in preventing certain birth defects. It plays many important roles in the body and has benefits for heart health in adults. Folate may be particularly useful for helping to control hypertension in people who smoke.
Effect of Folate on Hypertension
Folate plays a number of very important functions in the body, including cell division. Its exact role in the reduction of blood pressure is not yet clear. It may help reduce high blood pressure by a number of actions, including enhancing the function of the inner lining (endothelium) of blood vessels. Better endothelial function means that blood vessels are can dilate (open) more effectively, thus reducing blood pressure.67
Research Evidence on Folate
Research demonstrates that folate may help decrease blood pressure (as well as provide other heart healthy effects) in smokers.
In a double-blind, randomized trial, 24 "young chronic smokers" (average age 37.8 years) were divided into two groups. Some subjects received a daily folate supplement (5 mg) and others received a placebo. The study lasted four weeks. Researchers concluded that folate supplementation effectively improved the function of the lining (endothelium) of subjects' blood vessels and lowered their blood pressure.67
How to Use Folate
For most uses, folate is taken at nutritional doses, about 400 mcg daily for adults. However, higher dosages—up to 10 mg daily—have been used to treat specific diseases. In the study discussed here, smokers received a daily dose of 5 mg folate. Before taking more than 400 mcg daily, it is important to make sure that you don't have a vitamin B 12 deficiency (see Side Effects & Warnings for more information).
Folate (folic acid) supplements are widely available. Good food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, oranges, other fruits, rice, brewer's yeast, beef liver, beans, asparagus, kelp, soybeans, and soy flour.
Types of Professionals That Would Be Involved with This Treatment
- Integrative MD
- Naturopathic doctor
- Nutritionist or dietitian
Side Effects and Warnings
Folate at nutritional doses is extremely safe. The only serious potential problem is that folate supplementation can mask the early symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency (a special type of anemia), potentially allowing more irreversible symptoms of nerve damage to develop. For this reason, when taking more than 400 mcg daily, it is important to get your B 12 level checked. See the article on Vitamin B 12 for more information.
Very high dosages of folate, greater than 5 mg (5,000 mcg) daily, can cause digestive upset. The maximum recommended dosage of folate for pregnant or nursing women is 1,000 mcg daily (800 mcg if under 19 years old). ^ Media reports that use of folate by pregnant women may increase their risk of breast cancer are based on a single study of highly questionable validity. ^ At present, this is not considered a significant concern, but further research will follow.
As mentioned previously, the antiseizure drug phenytoin may interfere with folate absorption. However, folate may reduce the effectiveness of phenytoin. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ If you are taking phenytoin, you should consult with a physician about the proper dosage of folate for you.
Also, as noted above, individuals who are taking the drug methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis can safely take folate supplements at the same time. However, if you are taking methotrexate for any other purpose, do not take folate except on the advice of a physician.
#Interactions You Should Know About
If you are taking
- Aspirin and other anti-inflammatory medications , drugs that reduce stomach acid (such as antacids , H 2 blockers , and proton pump inhibitors ), bile acid sequestrants (such as cholestyramine and colestipol ), carbamazepine , estrogen-replacement therapy , nitrous oxide , oral contraceptives , oral hypoglycemic drugs , phenobarbital , primidone , sulfa antibiotics , triamterene , valproic acid or the antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole : You may need to take extra folate.
- Phenytoin : You may need more folate. However, too much folate can interfere with this medication and cause seizures! Physician supervision is essential.
- Drugs in the nitroglycerin family: Folate may help them remain effective
- Pancreatin (a proteolytic enzyme ): It may be advisable to separate your dose of pancreatin from your dose of folate by at least 2 hours in order to avoid absorption problems.
- Methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis: Evidence suggests that folate supplements may reduce side-effects of the drug without decreasing its benefits. Nonetheless, physician supervision is highly recommended. Note: If you are taking methotrexate for other conditions, folate might decrease the drug's effectiveness.
- Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, et al. Folic acid enhances endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Intern Med. 2002;252:497-503.