Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
Effect of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) on Infertility
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) are different intensive methods that used to treat infertility in couples. It involves removing eggs from a woman, fertilizing them with sperm in a laboratory and putting embryos back into the woman's uterus.
Research Evidence on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
According to the 2003 CDC report on ART, the average percentage of ART cycles that led to a healthy baby were as follows:
- 37.3% in women under the age of 35
- 30.2% in women aged 35-37
- 20.2% in women aged 37-40
- 11.0% in women aged 41-42
How to Use Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
The specific methods in ART are:
- In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the most successful and commonly used form of ART. It is often used when a woman's fallopian tubes are blocked or when a man produces too few sperm. First, the woman is treated with a drug that causes the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. Once mature, the eggs are removed from the woman. They are put in a dish in the lab along with the man's sperm for fertilization. After 3 to 5 days, healthy embryos are implanted in the woman's uterus.
- Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) or Tubal Embryo Transfer is similar to IVF except the very young embryo is transferred to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
- Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) involves transferring eggs and sperm into the woman's fallopian tube. The fertilization occurs in the woman's body rather than in a laboratory. This method is not commonly used.
- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is often used for couples in which there are problems with the sperm. This method involves injecting a single sperm into a mature egg. Then the embryo is transferred to the uterus or fallopian tube.