Infertility and Human menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG)
Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) or menotropins are natural hormones necessary for human reproduction. They are extracted from the urine of post menopausal women. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin is purified and then used as fertility treatment. Each vial of menotropin contains equal amounts of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Menotropin is a treatment option for women who do not menstruate on their own because of the failure of their pituitary gland to stimulate ovulation. Unlike clomiphene which works by acting on the pituitary gland, hMG and other gonadotrophins promote fertility by directly stimulating the ovaries. Human menopausal gonadotropin products also treat infertility in men with hypo- or normagonadotropic hypogonadism and may be used in combination with hCG to stimulate spermatogenesis.
Menotropin is one of the ovulation drugs often used in Assisted Reproductive Techniques. It may be effective in promoting fertility in women with ovarian dysfunction, endometriosis, and those who have no explanation for their struggle to get pregnant.
Effect of Human menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) on Infertility
Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG)stimulates ovarian follicular growth in women whose ovaries fail to produce eggs for functional reasons. HMG injections help develop mature follicles. In men, HMG promotes sperm formation if testosterone level and FSH levels are low. The LH stimulates the production of testosterone and FSH promotes the formation of sperm.
Human Menopausal Gonadotropin are important for the development of follicles (eggs) produced by the ovaries and for the development of sperm.
Research Evidence on Human menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG)
The effectiveness of Human Menopausal Gonadotropin as an infertility treatment has been confirmed by various clinical trials. One of these studies was done by researchers from the University of Miami School of Medicine. The investigators wanted to find out the effectiveness of Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (hMG) with intrauterine insemination (IUI) for various causes of infertility and to identify the factors that could contribute the successful of the treatment. The participants has infertility problems related to male factor, oligoovulation, tubal or pelvic factor, endometriosis and idiopathic infertility.
Using a retrospective chart analysis, investigators found out that Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (hMG) with intrauterine insemination is effective for some causes of infertility. Data also showed cases of multiple births. Investigators also found out that Human Menopausal Gonadotropin with intrauterine examination did not yield successful results for some patients including those who did not get pregnant in three cycles of treatment, females more than 40 years of age, dosage of more than 300 IU daily, and those who had more than 8 mature follicles when hCG was given.
How to Use Human menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG)
Dosage may vary from patient to patient. The recommended dose for menopausal gonatropin should not exceed 450 international units per day, the medication should not be used for more than 12 days per treatment cycle. Inject under the skin (subcutaneously) or into a muscle (intramuscularly) exactly as directed by your health care provider. Your dosage and length of treatment will be based on your medical condition and how your body responds to the therapy.
Side Effects and Warnings
Side effects The side effects associated with hMG are:
- abdominal or pelvic pain, tenderness, pressure, or swelling
- pain, warmth or tenderness in the arm or leg
- fever or chills
- headache or drowsiness
- weakness or aching of muscles or joints
- breast enlargement or tenderness
- pain, swelling or irritation at the injection site
Stop menotropin use and seek immediate medical attention if you experience symptoms of allergic reaction such as:
- difficulty breathing
- swelling of your lips, face
Watch our for symptoms of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), especially after the first cycle of therapy. OHSS is serious condition, contact your doctor or seek emergency treatment if you experience the following symptoms: swelling of the hands or legs, shortness of breath, abdominal pain and swelling, weight gain, and nausea or vomiting. This condition can be fatal. Contact your doctor or seek emergency treatment if you notice any of those side effects.
Menotropins may increase the likelihood of multiple births, this may carry additional risks for the mother and her babies.
- Drugs.com: Menotropin-injectable
- Vollenhoven B, et al. Treating infertility. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using human menopausal gonadotropin in combination with intrauterine insemination. Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida, USA. 1996.