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What is it? Overview Usage Side Effects and Warnings

Phenylalanine Overview

Written by FoundHealth.

Phenylalanine occurs in two chemical forms: L-phenylalanine, a natural amino acid found in proteins; and its mirror image, D-phenylalanine, a form synthesized in a laboratory. Some research has involved the L-form, others the D-form, and still others a combination of the two known as DL-phenylalanine.

In the body, phenylalanine is converted into another amino acid called tyrosine . Tyrosine in turn is converted into L-dopa, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, three key neurotransmitters (chemicals that transmit signals between nerve cells). Because some antidepressants work by raising levels of norepinephrine, various forms of phenylalanine have been tried as a possible treatment for depression.

D-phenylalanine (but not L-phenylalanine) has been proposed to treat chronic pain. It blocks enkephalinase, an enzyme that may act to increase pain levels in the body.


L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, meaning that we need it for life and our bodies can't manufacture it from other chemicals. It is found in protein-rich foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and beans. Provided you eat enough protein, you are likely to get enough L-phenylalanine for your nutritional needs. There is no nutritional need for D-phenylalanine.

Therapeutic Dosages

D- and DL-phenylalanine are typically taken at a dose of 100 to 200 mg daily for the treatment of depression. 1 For the treatment of chronic pain, studies have used D-phenylalanine in doses as high as 2,500 mg daily.

It is best not to take your phenylalanine supplement at the same time as a high-protein meal, as it may not be absorbed well.

What Is the Scientific Evidence for Phenylalanine?


A pair of double-blind comparative studies found that D- or DL-phenylalanine may be as effective as the antidepressant drug imipramine, and possibly work more quickly. The larger of the two studies compared the effectiveness of D-phenylalanine at 100 mg daily against the same daily dose of imipramine. 2 Sixty people with depression were randomly assigned to take either imipramine or D-phenylalanine for 30 days. The results in both groups were statistically equivalent, meaning that phenylalanine was about as effective as imipramine. D-phenylalanine worked more rapidly, however, producing significant improvement in only 15 days. Like most antidepressant drugs, imipramine required several weeks to take effect.

The other double-blind study followed 27 people, half of whom received DL-phenylalanine (150 to 200 mg daily) and the other half imipramine (100 to 150 mg daily). 3 When they were reevaluated after 30 days, both groups had improved by a statistically equal amount.

L-phenylalanine has also been tried as a treatment for depression, but not in studies that could provide a scientifically meaningful result. 4

Unfortunately, there have not been any double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of phenylalanine for depression. This is too bad, since without such evidence we can't be sure that the supplement is actually effective. (For information on why such studies are so important, see Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies? )

Chronic Pain

The enzyme enkephalinase breaks down enkephalins, naturally occurring substances that reduce pain. D-phenylalanine (but not L-phenylalanine) is thought to block enkephalinase; this could lead to increased enkephalin levels, which in turn would tend to reduce pain. 5 On this basis, D-phenylalanine has been proposed as a pain-killing drug.

However, as yet there is no meaningful evidence that it really works in this way. A small double-blind, placebo-controlled study reported evidence for the effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain, 6 but a careful re-examination of the math involved showed that it actually proved little. 7 Another small double-blind, placebo-controlled study failed to find any benefits at all. 8 Another study commonly described as showing D-phenylalanine effective suffered from many flaws (including the fact that it lacked a control group) and, therefore, can't be trusted. 9


  1. Werbach MR. Nutritional Influences on Mental Illness: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press; 1991:141-142.
  2. Heller B. Pharmacological and clinical effects of D-phenylalanine in depression and Parkinson’s disease. In: Mosnaim AD, Wolf ME, eds. Noncatecholic Phenylethylamines. Part 1. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1978:397-417.
  3. Beckmann H, Athen D, Olteanu M, et al. DL-phenylalanine versus imipramine: a double-blind controlled study. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr. 1979;227:49-58.
  4. Sabelli HC, Fawcett J, Gusovsky F, Javaid JI, Wynn P, Edwards J, Jeffriess H, Kravitz H. Clinical studies on the phenylethylamine hypothesis of affective disorder: urine and blood phenylacetic acid and phenylalanine dietary supplements. J Clin Psychiatry. 47(2):66-70.
  5. Budd K. Use of D-phenylalanine, an enkephalinase inhibitor, in the treatment of intractable pain. Adv Pain Res Ther. 1983;5:305-308.
  6. Budd K. Use of D-phenylalanine, an enkephalinase inhibitor, in the treatment of intractable pain. Adv Pain Res Ther. 1983;5:305-308.
  7. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, et al. D-phenylalnine was not found to exhibit opiate receptor mediated analgesia in monkeys [letter]. Pain.1986;26:409-410.
  8. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, et al. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986;67:436-439.
  9. Balagot RC, Ehrenpreis S, Kubota K, et al. Analgesia in mice and humans by D-phenylalanine: Relation to inhibition of enkephalin degradation and enkephalin levels. Adv Pain Res Ther. 1983;5:289-293.


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