Phosphatidylserine
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Phosphatidylserine Usage

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Usages

Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Alzheimer's Disease

Phosphatidylserine (PS), in studies of severe mental decline, appears to have been equally effective whether the cause was Alzheimer's disease or something entirely unrelated, such as multiple small...

Read more about Alzheimer's Disease and Phosphatidylserine.

Therapeutic Uses

Meaningful evidence from numerous double-blind studies suggests that animal-source PS is an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of age-related mental decline. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Vegetable-derived PS has little supporting evidence.

PS is widely marketed as a treatment for ordinary age-related memory loss as well. While there is little direct evidence that it works, in studies of severe mental decline, PS appears to have been equally effective whether the cause was Alzheimer's disease or something entirely unrelated, such as multiple small strokes. This certainly suggests that PS may have a positive impact on the brain that is not specific to any one condition. From this observation, it is not a great leap to suspect that it might be useful for much less severe problems with memory and mental function, such as those that seem to occur in nearly all of us who are older than 40. Indeed, one double-blind study did find that animal-source phosphatidylserine could improve mental function in individuals with relatively mild age-related memory loss. 10 However, two studies failed to find plant-source PS effective for this condition. 11 PS has also been proposed for enhancing mental function in young people, but there is no direct evidence at all that any form is effective.

Animal-source PS has also shown a slight bit of promise for depression . 12 Recently, PS has become popular among athletes who hope it can help them build muscle more efficiently. This use is based on weak evidence that PS slows the release of cortisol following heavy exercise. 13 14 Cortisol is a hormone that causes muscle tissue to break down. For reasons that are unclear, the body produces increased levels of cortisol after heavy exercise. Strength athletes believe that this natural cortisol release works against their efforts to rapidly build muscle mass and hope that PS will help them advance more quickly. However, only two double-blind placebo-controlled studies of PS as a sports supplement have been reported, and neither one found effects on cortisol levels. 15 Of these small trials, one found a possible ergogenic benefit, and the other did not.

Interestingly, PS has also been advocated as an aid to recovery from heavy exercise , according to the theory that use of PS would help reduce muscle soreness. This would seem to contradict the proposed effects on cortisol, as cortisol has anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, researchers performed a double-blind study to evaluate whether 750 mg daily of soy-source PS would reduce muscle soreness following downhill racing; no benefits were seen. 16 One study found preliminary evidence that a combination of soy-based PS and lecithin may moderate the body's reaction to mental stress . 17 Another study evaluated use of phosphatidylserine for reducing stress in golfers, but the benefits seen failed to reach statistical significance . 18 Participants who were given phosphatidylserine did, however, tee-off successfully at a greater rate than those given placebo.

References

  1. Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 24(1):130-4.
  2. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, Petrie W, Nunzi MG, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 41(5):644-9.
  3. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull. 28(1):61-6.
  4. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 73(2):136-40.
  5. Engel RR, Satzger W, Günther W, Kathmann N, Bove D, Gerke S, Münch U, Hippius H. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2(2):149-55.
  6. Fünfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, Richstein B, Mistlberger G. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res. 317():1235-46.
  7. Nerozzi D, Aceti F, Melia E, et al. Phosphatidylserine and memory disorders in the aged [in Italian; English abstract]. Clin Ther. 1987;120:399-404.
  8. Palmieri G, Palmieri R, Inzoli MR, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:73-83.
  9. Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:84-93.
  10. Gindin J, Novikov M, Kedar D, et al. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Geriatric Institute for Education and Research and Dept of Geriatrics; Kaplan Hospital; Rehovot, Israel; 1995.
  11. Gindin J, Novikov M, Kedar D, et al. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Geriatric Institute for Education and Research and Dept of Geriatrics; Kaplan Hospital; Rehovot, Israel; 1995.
  12. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, Panerai A, Cenacchi T, Nobile P, Brambilla F. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 81(3):265-70.
  13. Fahey TD, Pearl M. Hormonal effects of phosphatidylserine during 2 weeks of intense training. Abstract presented at: National Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine; June, 1998; Orlando, Florida.
  14. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, Natale M, Kemali D. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 42(4):385-8.
  15. Kingsley MI, Wadsworth D, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Benton D. Effects of phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 37(8):1300-6.
  16. Kingsley MI, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Dietzig RE, Benton D. Phosphatidylserine supplementation and recovery following downhill running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38(9):1617-25.
  17. Hellhammer J, Fries E, Buss C, Engert V, Tuch A, Rutenberg D, Hellhammer D. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress. 7(2):119-26.
  18. Jäger R, Purpura M, Geiss KR, Weiß M, Baumeister J, Amatulli F, Schröder L, Herwegen H. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 4(1):23.
 
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