The musculoskeletal system is made up of bones, muscle, joints, connective tissues and cartilage. These structures have to work normally for us to be able to carry out physical activities such as walking, running, eating, and writing.
The bones work as a system of levers that move around pivot points known as joints. The joints connect the bones and allow us to move. Joints have the capability to serve the functional needs of the limbs where they are located. The joints are covered by a flexible, sponge-like substance known as cartilage which supports the bones and protects the areas where they rub against each other.
Synovial membrane or synovium lines the joints, it makes fluid for the cartilage and lubricates the joints. This fluid protects the joint and allows smooth movements. In conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, the synovium can become irritated and thickened.
A tough band of connective tissues known as tendons attach muscles to the bones. The tendons transmit forces that permits the joints to move. Fibrous tissue known as ligaments connect bone to another bone. Ligaments provide stability to the joint and it also prevents excessive joint movement.
All about joints: a maintenance guide by Irwin M. Siegel
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