Soy
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Soy Overview

Written by FoundHealth.

The soybean has been prized for centuries in Asia as a nutritious, high-protein food with a myriad of uses, and today it's popular in the United States not only in Asian food, but also as a cholesterol-free meat and dairy substitute in traditional American foods. Soy burgers, soy yogurt, tofu hot dogs, and tofu cheese can be found in a growing number of grocery stores alongside the traditional white blocks of tofu, and soy is increasingly used as a protein filler in many prepared foods, including fast-food “hamburger.”

Soy appears to reduce blood cholesterol levels, and the US Food and Drug Administration has authorized allowing foods containing soy to carry a "heart-healthy" label.

Soybeans contain isoflavones, chemicals that are similar to estrogen. These are widely thought to be the active ingredients in soy, although, as discussed below, there is substantial evidence that other constituents may be equally or more important. Much of the information in this article overlaps with that in the Isoflavone article.

Sources

If you like Japanese, Chinese, Thai, or Vietnamese food, it's easy to get a healthy dose of soy. Tofu is one of the world's most versatile foods. It can be stir-fried, steamed, or added to soup. You can also mash a cake of tofu and use it in place of ricotta cheese in your lasagna. If you don't like tofu, there are many other soy products to try: plain soybeans, soy cheese, soy burgers, soy milk, or tempeh. Or, you can use a soy supplement instead.

Therapeutic Dosages

The FDA allows soy foods containing 6-½ grams of soy to carry a heart-healthy label. Evidence suggests that a daily intake of 25 g of soy protein is adequate to noticeably reduce cholesterol. This amount is typically found in about 2-½ cups of soy milk or ½ pound of tofu.

Note:Soy is increasingly added to foods in the US as a protein filler, and there are concerns that some people here may be greatly exceeding the amount of soy eaten anywhere else in the world. Even the 25 g amount recommended for reducing cholesterol levels is relatively high. For comparison, in Asia, the average intake of soy is only about 10 g daily. 1

What Is the Scientific Evidence for Soy?

High Cholesterol

Numerous controlled studies indicate that soy can reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol by about 10%, and perhaps slightly raise HDL (“good”) cholesterol as well. 2 It has often been assumed that isoflavones are the active ingredients in soy responsible for improving cholesterol profile. However, studies that used purified isoflavones (as opposed to whole soy, or soy protein) have generally failed to find benefit. 3 It is possible that non-isoflavone constituents of soy, such as proteins, fiber, and phospholipids, may be equally or perhaps even more important than the isoflavones in soy. 4 In a careful review of 30 studies involving almost 3,000 subjects, researchers determined that isolated soy protein (in the range of 15-40 g per day) modestly reduced LDL cholesterol levels by an average of 6%. 5 In another study involving two soy milk products, one made from whole soy beans and the other from isolated soy proteins, researchers found that both were more effective than cow’s milk at reducing LDL cholesterol levels. 6 In addition, the substance pinitol appears to have cholesterol-lowering properties. 7 However, there are other possibilities as well. One study suggests that the isoflavone daidzein may be only effective for reducing cholesterol when it is converted by intestinal bacterial into a substance called equol. 8 It appears that only about one-third of people have the right intestinal bacteria to make equol.

Another study found that soy products may at times have an unusual isoflavone profile—containing high levels of the isoflavone glycitein rather than the more usual genistein and daidzein. 9 Glycitein could be inactive regarding cholesterol reduction; in other words, variations in the proportions of specific isoflavone constituents might have made some studied soy isoflavone products inactive.

It has also been suggested that soy protein must be kept in its original state to be effective. Ordinary soy protein extracts are somewhat damaged (“denatured”). In a double-blind study of 120 people, a special soy protein extract—in which the proteins were protected from damage—proved more effective for improving cholesterol profile than did standard denatured soy protein extracts. 10 There are other theories, as well. For more information, see the Isoflavone article.

Menopausal Symptoms ("Hot Flashes")

Although study results are not entirely consistent, soy may be helpful for symptoms of menopause , especially "hot flashes." For example, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 104 women found that isoflavone-rich soy protein provided significant relief of hot flashes compared to placebo (milk protein). Improvements in hot flashes, as well as other symptoms such as vaginal dryness, were seen in several other studies of soy or soy isoflavones as well. 11 However, about as many studies have failed to find benefit with soy or concentrated isoflavones. 12 Furthermore, in three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, isoflavone-rich soy failed to reduce hot flashes among survivors of breast cancer. 13 To make matters even more complicated, a double-blind study of 241 women experiencing hot flashes found equivalent benefits whether isoflavone-free or isoflavone-rich soy products were used. 14 The high rate of the placebo effect seen in many studies of menopausal symptoms may account for these discrepancies. In addition, it is possible that certain formulations of soy contain as yet unidentified ingredients beyond isoflavones that play an important role.

At least two studies found that people who are equol producers (see previous section) may experience greater benefits. 15

Osteoporosis

In one study that evaluated the benefits of soy in osteoporosis, a total of 66 postmenopausal women took either placebo (soy protein with isoflavones removed) or soy protein with 56 mg or 90 mg of isoflavones daily for 6 months. 16 The group that took the higher dosage of isoflavones showed significant gains in spinal bone density. There was little change in the placebo or low-dose isoflavone groups. This study suggests that the soy isoflavones in soy protein may be effective for osteoporosis.

Very nearly the same results were also seen in a similar study. This 24-week, double-blind study of 69 postmenopausal women found that soy can significantly reduce bone loss from the spine. 17 Similar benefits with soy or soy isoflavones have been seen in other human and animal trials; however, other studies have failed to find benefit. 18 On balance it is probably fair to say that isoflavones (either as soy, purified isoflavones, or tofu extract) are likely to have a modestly beneficial effect on bone density at most.

Interestingly, one small but long-term study suggests that progesterone cream (another treatment proposed for use in preventing or treating osteoporosis) may decrease the bone-sparing effect of soy isoflavones. 19 Estrogen and most other medications for osteoporosis work by fighting bone breakdown. It has been hypothesized that soy may also work in other ways, by helping to increase new bone formation. 20

References

  1. Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr. 132(3):547S-551S.
  2. Baum JA, Teng H, Erdman JW Jr, Weigel RM, Klein BP, Persky VW, Freels S, Surya P, Bakhit RM, Ramos E, Shay NF, Potter SM. Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 68(3):545-51.
  3. Yeung J, Yu TF. Effects of isoflavones (soy phyto-estrogens) on serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr J. 2():15.
  4. Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr. 132(3):547S-551S.
  5. Harland JI, Haffner TA. Systematic review, meta-analysis and regression of randomised controlled trials reporting an association between an intake of circa 25g soya protein per day and blood cholesterol. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Apr 15.
  6. Gardner CD, Messina M, Kiazand A, Morris JL, Franke AA. Effect of two types of soy milk and dairy milk on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 26(6):669-77.
  7. Kim JI, Kim JC, Kang MJ, Lee MS, Kim JJ, Cha IJ. Effects of pinitol isolated from soybeans on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 59(3):456-8.
  8. Meyer BJ, Larkin TA, Owen AJ, Astheimer LB, Tapsell LC, Howe PR. Limited lipid-lowering effects of regular consumption of whole soybean foods. Ann Nutr Metab. 48(2):67-78.
  9. Sirtori CR, Bosisio R, Pazzucconi F, et al. Soy milk with a high glycitein content does not reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia in type II hypercholesterolemic patients. Ann Nutr Metab. 2002;46:88-92.  
  10. Hoie LH, Guldstrand M, Sjoholm A, Graubaum HJ, Gruenwald J, Zunft HJ, Lueder W. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a new isolated soy protein with high levels of nondenaturated protein in hypercholesterolemic patients. Adv Ther. 24(2):439-47.
  11. Scambia G, Mango D, Signorile PG, Anselmi Angeli RA, Palena C, Gallo D, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Riva A, Mancuso S. Clinical effects of a standardized soy extract in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Menopause. 7(2):105-11.
  12. St. Germain A, Peterson CT, Robinson JG, et al. Isoflavone-rich or isoflavone-poor soy protein does not reduce menopausal symptoms during 24 weeks of treatment. Menopause. 2001;8:17-26.
  13. Van Patten CL, Olivotto IA, Chambers GK, Gelmon KA, Hislop TG, Templeton E, Wattie A, Prior JC. Effect of soy phytoestrogens on hot flashes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 20(6):1449-55.
  14. Burke GL, Legault C, Anthony M, Bland DR, Morgan TM, Naughton MJ, Leggett K, Washburn SA, Vitolins MZ. Soy protein and isoflavone effects on vasomotor symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women: the Soy Estrogen Alternative Study. Menopause. 10(2):147-53.
  15. Uesugi S, Watanabe S, Ishiwata N, Uehara M, Ouchi K. Effects of isoflavone supplements on bone metabolic markers and climacteric symptoms in Japanese women. Biofactors. 22(1-4):221-8.
  16. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Shay NF, Erdman JW Jr. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 68(6 Suppl):1375S-1379S.
  17. Alekel DL, St. Germain A, Peterson CT, et al. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:844-852.
  18. Harrison E, Adjei A, Ameho C, Yamamoto S, Kono S. The effect of soybean protein on bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 44(2):257-68.
  19. Lydeking-Olsen E, Beck-Jensen JE, Setchell KD, Holm-Jensen T. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss--a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 43(4):246-57.
  20. Fanti O, Faugere MC, Gang Z, et al. Systematic administration of genistein partially prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats in a nonestrogen-like mechanism [abstract]. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(suppl):1517S-1518S.
 
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