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Effect of Vitamin C on Gout
Although most animals can make vitamin C from scratch, humans have lost the ability over the course of evolution. We must get it from food, chiefly fresh fruits and vegetables. One of this vitamin's...
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Effect of Vitamin C on Autism
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes damaging natural substances called free radicals. It works in water, both inside and outside of cells. Vitamin C complements another antioxidant...
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Effect of Vitamin C on Cervical Cancer
Vitamin C is the single most popular vitamin supplement in the United States and perhaps the most controversial, as well. In the 1960s, two-time Nobel Prize winner Dr. Linus Pauling claimed that...
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Effect of Vitamin C on Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza)
Vitamin C supports immune function, but the exact effect of vitamin C on colds and flu is not clear. Vitamin C serves numerous functions in the body, from producing collagen to working as an...
Effect of Vitamin C on Lyme Disease
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Effect of Vitamin C on Hypertension
The exact role of vitamin C in lowering blood pressure is not yet clear. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes damaging natural substances called free radicals. It works in water,...
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Effect of Vitamin C on Bipolar Disorder
It is thought that vitamin C might play a role in helping to treat bipolar disorder, though this has yet to be extensively studied.
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According to numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, regular use of vitamin C supplements can slightly reduce symptoms of colds and modestly shorten the length of the illness. 1 However, taking vitamin C at the onset of a cold probably will not work. 2 Regular use of vitamin C does not seem to help preventcolds. 3 One exception is the “post-marathon sniffle”—colds that develop after heavy exercise. 4 Vitamin C may be helpful for preventing this condition, although not all studies agree. 5 Two double-blind studies suggest that the use of vitamin C combined with vitamin E might slightly reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia , a complication of pregnancy. 6 However, a much larger follow-up study failed to find benefits. 7 Two studies conducted by a single research group have found that vitamin C at a dose of 500 mg daily might help prevent reflex sympathetic dystrophy, a poorly understood condition that can follow injuries such as fractures. 8 Over time, the body develops tolerance to drugs in the nitrate family (such as nitroglycerin ). Some evidence suggests that use of vitamin C can help maintain the effectiveness of these medications. 9 10 11 Other small double-blind trials suggest that vitamin C might be helpful for anterior uveitis (when taken in combination with vitamin E ), 12 autism , 13 easy bruising , 14 minor injuries , 15 protecting the liver in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, 16 speeding recovery from bedsores, 17 treating female infertility (specifically, a condition called "luteal phase defect"), 18 and preventing early rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes ("the water breaking") in pregnancy . 19 Vitamin C might also improve the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori, the cause of most peptic ulcers . 20 Preliminary evidence suggests that cream containing vitamin C may improve the appearance of aging or sun-damaged skin . 21 Inconsistent evidence suggests that oral or topical vitamin C, taken by itself or in combination with vitamin E , may also help protectthe skin against sun damage. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Double-blind studies of vitamin C for the following conditions have yielded mixed results: asthma , 29 male infertility , 30 reducing the muscle soreness that typically develops after exercise, 31 and hypertension . 32 Note: Unexpectedly, one study found that a combination of vitamin C (500 mg daily) and grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) (1,000 mg daily) slightly increasedblood pressure. 33 Whether this was a fluke of statistics or a real combined effect remains unclear.
Limited and in some cases contradictory evidence suggests possible benefit in the prevention or treatment the following conditions:
- Allergies 34 35
- Atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) 36
- Bladder infections during pregnancy 37
- Gallbladder disease (in women) 38
- General anesthetics 39
- Glaucoma 40
- Gout 41
- Obesity 42 43
- Vascular dementia 44
Intravaginal use of vitamin C tablets might be helpful for non-specific vaginitis. 45
Observational studies indicate that people with a higher intake of vitamin C have a lower incidence of cataracts , macular degeneration , heart disease , cancer , and osteoarthritis . 46 However, these findings do not indicate that vitamin C supplementswill help prevent or treat these conditions. Observational studies are notoriously unreliable for showing the efficacy of treatments; only double-blind studies can do that, and only one has been performed that directly examined vitamin C’s potential benefits for preventing these conditions. (For more information on why double-blind studies are so important, see Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies? ) Two large double-blind trials exploring the effectiveness of vitamin C for heart disease prevention—one in women at high risk181 and the other in men at low risk— 47 failed to find any benefit at all.
Vitamin C has been proposed as a treatmentfor cancer, but this claim is very controversial, and there is as yet no scientifically meaningful evidence that it works. 48 49 50 Massive doses of vitamin C have at times been popular among people with HIV infection based on highly preliminary evidence. 51 An observational study linked high doses of vitamin C with slower progression to AIDS. 52 However, a double-blind study of 49 people with HIV who took combined vitamins C and E or placebo for 3 months did not show any significant effects on the amount of HIV detected or the number of opportunistic infections. 53 Furthermore, one study found that vitamin C at a dose of 1 g daily substantially reduced blood levels of the drug indinavir, a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV infection. 54 This could potentially cause the drug to fail.
In a study of 80 women with Chlamydia trachomatisinfection, adding vitamin C to doxycycline and triple sulfa vaginal cream reduced discharge and pain associated with intercourse. 55 One substantial study failed to find vitamin C useful for improving high cholesterol . 56 According to a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 141 women with cervical dysplasia (early cervical cancer), vitamin C, taken at a dosage of 500 mg daily, does nothelp to reverse the dysplasia. 57 Vitamin C also does not appear to be helpful for treating Raynaud’s phenomenon caused by scleroderma . 58
- Hemilä H. Does vitamin C alleviate the symptoms of the common cold?--a review of current evidence. Scand J Infect Dis. 26(1):1-6.
- Hemilä H. Vitamin C supplementation and common cold symptoms: factors affecting the magnitude of the benefit. Med Hypotheses. 52(2):171-8.
- Hemilä H. Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to the common cold. Br J Nutr. 77(1):59-72.
- Peters EM, Goetzsche JM, Grobbelaar B, Noakes TD. Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. Am J Clin Nutr. 57(2):170-4.
- Hemilä H, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Kaprio J. Physical activity and the common cold in men administered vitamin E and beta-carotene. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 35(11):1815-20.
- Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briley AL, Kelly FJ, Lee R, Hunt BJ, Parmar K, Bewley SJ, Shennan AH, Steer PJ, Poston L. Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial. Lancet. 354(9181):810-6.
- Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, et al. Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1796-806.
- Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Kreis RW, Breederveld RS. Effect of vitamin C on frequency of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in wrist fractures: a randomised trial. Lancet. 354(9195):2025-8.
- Watanabe H, Kakihana M, Ohtsuka S, Sugishita Y. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the preventive effect of supplemental oral vitamin C on attenuation of development of nitrate tolerance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 31(6):1323-9.
- Bassenge E, Fink N, Skatchkov M, Fink B. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance. J Clin Invest. 102(1):67-71.
- Daniel TA, Nawarskas JJ. Vitamin C in the prevention of nitrate tolerance. Ann Pharmacother. 34(10):1193-7.
- van Rooij J, Schwartzenberg SGWS, Mulder PGH, et al. Oral vitamins C and E as additional treatment in patients with acute anterior uveitis: a randomised double masked study in 145 patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:1277-1282.
- Dolske MC, Spollen J, McKay S, Lancashire E, Tolbert L. A preliminary trial of ascorbic acid as supplemental therapy for autism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 17(5):765-74.
- Schorah CJ, Tormey WP, Brooks GH, Robertshaw AM, Young GA, Talukder R, Kelly JF. The effect of vitamin C supplements on body weight, serum proteins, and general health of an elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr. 34(5):871-6.
- MILLER MJ. Injuries to athletes: evaluation of ascorbic acid and water soluble citrus bioflavonoids in the prophylaxis of injuries in athletes. Med Times. 88():313-6.
- Harrison SA, Torgerson S, Hayashi P, Ward J, Schenker S. Vitamin E and vitamin C treatment improves fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 98(11):2485-90.
- Taylor TV, Rimmer S, Day B, Butcher J, Dymock IW. Ascorbic acid supplementation in the treatment of pressure-sores. Lancet. 2(7880):544-6.
- Henmi H, Endo T, Kitajima Y, Manase K, Hata H, Kudo R. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on serum progesterone levels in patients with a luteal phase defect. Fertil Steril. 80(2):459-61.
- Casanueva E, Ripoll C, Tolentino M, Morales RM, Pfeffer F, Vilchis P, Vadillo-Ortega F. Vitamin C supplementation to prevent premature rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 81(4):859-63.
- Chuang CH, Sheu BS, Kao AW, Cheng HC, Huang AH, Yang HB, Wu JJ. Adjuvant effect of vitamin C on omeprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Hepatogastroenterology. 54(73):320-4.
- Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 125(10):1091-8.
- Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, Manning T, Pinnell S. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol. 127(3):247-53.
- Darr D, Dunston S, Faust H, et al. Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76:264-268.
- Trevithick JR, Shum DT, Redae S, Mitton KP, Norley C, Karlik SJ, Groom AC, Schmidt EE. Reduction of sunburn damage to skin by topical application of vitamin E acetate following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation: effect of delaying application or of reducing concentration of vitamin E acetate applied. Scanning Microsc. 7(4):1269-81.
- Trevithick JR, Xiong H, Lee S, Shum DT, Sanford SE, Karlik SJ, Norley C, Dilworth GR. Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB, sunburn-associated erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity in hairless mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 296(2):575-82.
- Eberlein-König B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol. 38(1):45-8.
- Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med. 25(9):1006-12.
- Werninghaus K, Meydani M, Bhawan J, Margolis R, Blumberg JB, Gilchrest BA. Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation. Arch Dermatol. 130(10):1257-61.
- Bielory L, Gandhi R. Asthma and vitamin C. Ann Allergy. 73(2):89-96; quiz 96-100.
- Dawson EB, Harris WA, Rankin WE, Charpentier LA, McGanity WJ. Effect of ascorbic acid on male fertility. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 498():312-23.
- Jakeman P, Maxwell S. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on muscle function after eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 67(5):426-30.
- Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, Huang A, Frei B, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JA. Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Lancet. 354(9195):2048-9.
- Ward NC, Hodgson JM, Croft KD, Clarke MW, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Puddey IB. Effects of vitamin C and grape-seed polyphenols on blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals: results of a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 12 Suppl():S18.
- Bucca C, Rolla G, Oliva A, Farina JC. Effect of vitamin C on histamine bronchial responsiveness of patients with allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy. 65(4):311-4.
- Bellioni P, Artuso A, Di Luzio Parparatti U, et al. Histaminic provocation in allergy. The role of ascorbic acid [in Italian]. Riv Eur Sci Med Farmacol. 1987;9:419-422.
- Eslami M, Badkoubeh RS, Mousavi M, Radmehr H, Salehi M, Tavakoli N, Avadi MR. Oral ascorbic acid in combination with beta-blockers is more effective than beta-blockers alone in the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Tex Heart Inst J. 34(3):268-74.
- Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, et al. A randomized factorial trial of vitamins C and E and beta carotene in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in women: results from the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1610-1618.
- Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Arch Intern Med. 160(7):931-6.
- Karakilçik AZ, Hayat A, Aydilek N, Zerin M, Cay M. Effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes and biochemical parameters in rats anesthetized with halothane. Gen Physiol Biophys. 24(1):47-55.
- Baxter RC. Vitamin C and glaucoma. J Am Optom Assoc. 59(6):438.
- Huang HY, Appel LJ, Choi MJ, Gelber AC, Charleston J, Norkus EP, Miller ER 3rd. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on serum concentrations of uric acid: results of a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 52(6):1843-7.
- Johnston CS, Corte C, Swan PD. Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults. Nutr Metab (Lond). 3():35.
- Naylor GJ, et al. A double blind placebo controlled trial of ascorbic acid in obesity. IRCS J Med Sci. 1982;10:25-28.
- Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, Foley DJ, Ross GW, Petrovitch H, Havlik R, White LR. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology. 54(6):1265-72.
- Petersen EE, Magnani P. Efficacy and safety of vitamin C vaginal tablets in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 117(1):70-5.
- Hankinson SE, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study. BMJ. 305(6849):335-9.
- Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300:2123-2133.
- Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1976;73:3685-3689.
- Cameron E, Campbell A. Innovation vs. quality control: an 'unpublishable' clinical trial of supplemental ascorbate in incurable cancer. Med Hypotheses. 36(3):185-9.
- Creagan ET, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Schutt AJ, O'Connell MJ, Rubin J, Frytak S. Failure of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy to benefit patients with advanced cancer. A controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 301(13):687-90.
- Harakeh S, Jariwalla RJ, Pauling L. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascorbate in chronically and acutely infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990;87:7245-7249.
- Tang AM, Graham NHM, Kirby AJ, et al. Dietary micronutrient intake and risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138:937-951.
- Allard JP, Aghdassi E, Chau J, Tam C, Kovacs CM, Salit IE, Walmsley SL. Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. AIDS. 12(13):1653-9.
- Slain D, Ansden J, Khakoo R, et al. Effects of high-dose vitamin C on the steady state pharmacokinetics of the protease inhibitor Indinavir in healthy volunteers. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) Meeting; Sept 13-17, 2003; Chicago, IL. Poster A-1610.
- Khajehei M, Keshavarz T, Tabatabaee HR. Randomised double-blind trial of the effect of vitamin C on dyspareunia and vaginal discharge in women receiving doxycycline and triple sulfa for chlamydial cervicitis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 49(5):525-30.
- Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane S. Long-term vitamin C supplementation has no markedly favourable effect on serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese subjects. Br J Nutr. 91(1):81-90.
- Mackerras D, Irwig L, Simpson JM, Weisberg E, Cardona M, Webster F, Walton L, Ghersi D. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities. Br J Cancer. 79(9-10):1448-53.
- Mavrikakis ME, Lekakis JP, Papamichael CM, et al. Ascorbic acid does not improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003;73:3-7.