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What Is Polio?
While virtually eliminated in the US, polio is a serious illness caused by a virus that still affects many parts of the world. It can cause:
- Flu-like symptoms
The polio virus can be spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with the virus. It can also be spread through person-to-person contact (eg, kissing) or fecal-oral contact. This type of contact is more likely to occur in unsanitary conditions.
Anyone can develop this infection. It mainly affects children under five years old. Also, it is more likely to lead to paralysis in certain people, including those who:
- Have immune deficiency
- Are pregnant
- Had their tonsils removed
- Take intramuscular injections
- Exercise strenuously
- Are injured
Before the 1950s, when the polio vaccine was developed, this disease affected thousands of children each year. But the use of the vaccine has made polio very rare in developed nations.
- Mild fever
- Sore throat
- Abdominal pain
There is no cure for polio. Treatments to manage the symptoms of the disease include:
- Pain medicines
- Ventilators to help breathing
- Healthful diet
What Is the Polio Vaccine?
The polio vaccine is made of inactivated polio virus. In the past, an oral vaccine containing live polio vaccine was used. Since there is a small risk of getting polio from the oral vaccine, it is no longer recommended. Today's polio vaccine is given by injection into the arm or leg.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
The polio vaccine is recommended for all children. The vaccine can be given to babies as young as 6 weeks. This is only done if the baby is at an increased risk of infection. The regular schedule for giving the vaccine is at ages 2, 4, 6-18 months, and at 4 years. If the child receives the fourth dose before age 4 years, then he will need a fifth dose between 4-6 years.
Certain higher risk adults who did not receive the polio vaccine as children should talk with their doctors about whether they should get it. These include:
- People traveling to areas of the world where polio is common
- Laboratory workers who handle the polio virus
- Healthcare workers who treat patients who may have polio
What Are the Risks Associated With the Polio Vaccine?
Most people have no problems with the polio vaccine. However, some experience soreness around the area where the shot was given. Like all vaccines, the polio vaccine carries a very small risk of serious reaction, such as a severe allergic reaction.
Acetaminophen (eg, Tylenol) is sometimes given to reduce pain and fever that may occur after getting a vaccine. In infants, the medicine may weaken the vaccine's effectiveness. Discuss the risks and benefits of taking acetaminophen with your doctor.
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
What Other Ways Can Polio Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
Avoiding unsanitary conditions and practicing good personal hygiene (eg, washing your hands regularly) can prevent polio.
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
In the event of an outbreak, all people who have not received the polio vaccine should receive it. The US maintains an emergency stockpile of the oral polio vaccine.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
American Academy of Family Physicians
Vaccine and Immunizations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Model insert: oral polio vaccine for children. World Health Organization website. Available at:
. Updated September 2002. Accessed January 31, 2007.
Polio. Mayo Clinic website. Available at:
. Updated July 2008. Accessed January 19, 2009.
Polio disease: question and answers. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
. Updated April 2007. Accessed January 19, 2009.
Polio vaccine. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at:
. Updated November 2006. Accessed January 31, 2007.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Prymula R, Siegrist C, Chlibek R, et al. Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials.
11/9/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding routine poliovirus vaccination.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(30):829-830.
1/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 Through 18 years—United States, 2010.