Soy
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Soy Usage

Written by FoundHealth.

Usages

Effect of Soy on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Soy has been said to possibly help with hormone regulation for those with PCOS.

Read more about Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Soy.

Effect of Soy on Hypertension

Soy contains several components that are believed to have effects on the body, including proteins, fiber, phospholipids, and isoflavones (phytoestrogens). Any or all of these elements might...

Read more about Hypertension and Soy.

Effect of Soy on Lipid Disorders

Soy contains several components that are believed to have effects on the body, including proteins, fiber, phospholipids, and isoflavones (phytoestrogens). Any or all of these elements might...

Read more about Lipid Disorders and Soy.

Therapeutic Uses

According to the combined evidence of numerous controlled studies, soy can reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the ratio of LDL ("bad") versus HDL ("good") cholesterol. 1 At an average dosage of 47 g daily, total cholesterol falls by about 9%, LDL cholesterol by 13%, and triglycerides by 10%. Soy's effects on HDL cholesterol itself are less impressive. There is inconsistent evidence regarding whether soy might help reduce high blood pressure . 2 Indeed, a comprehensive and careful review of studies investigating the influence of phytoestrogens (including soy meals) on blood pressure found no meaningful effect. 3 However, another review found that soy protein (as opposed to other soy products) could significantly reduce blood pressure. 4 Soy may reduce the common menopausal symptom known as "hot flashes," but study results conflict. 5 Soy has not been found helpful for improving the hot flashes that often occur in breast cancer survivors. 6 Unlike estrogen, soy appears to reduce the risk of uterine cancer. 7 Its effect on breast cancer is not as well established, but there are reasons to believe that soy can help reduce breast cancer risk as well, 8 9 possibly by reducing estrogen levels and lengthening the menstrual cycle. 10 (For more information, see the Isoflavone article.) Soy has shown inconsistent promise for helping to prevent prostate and colon cancers. 11 One preliminary double-blind trial found evidence that soy protein can reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis . 12 In addition, soy might help prevent osteoporosis . 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 In preliminary double-blind studies, a special extract of soy sauce called "Shoyu polysaccharides" has shown promise as a treatment for allergic rhinitis (hay fever). 21 Another special extract of soy, Bowman-Birk Inhibitor concentrate (BBI), has shown promise for helping to prevent cancer 22 23 24 and also for treating ulcerative colitis . 25 Soy may be beneficial in diabetes . A soy extract, pinitol, may improve blood sugar control in diabetics. 26 And, in addition to its favorable effects on cholesterol, the long-term consumption of a diet rich in soy may reduce blood sugar and improve kidney function in diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. 27 Yet another soy extract, pinitol, may improve blood sugar control in people with diabetes. 28 A very small study found hints that soy isoflavones might help reduce buildup of abdominal fat. 29 A product containing soy isoflavones and other herbs has shown some promise for migraine headaches associated with the menstrual cycle (menstrual migraines). 30 Weak evidence suggests that soy protein may be helpful for cyclic breast pain. 31 A fermented soy product called natto has shown some promise for dissolving blood clots . 32

References

  1. Albertazzi P, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, et al. The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:6-11.
  2. He J, Gu D, Wu X, Chen J, Duan X, Chen J, Whelton PK. Effect of soybean protein on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 143(1):1-9.
  3. Rosero Arenas MA, Rosero Arenas E, Portaceli Armiñana MA, García García MA. [Usefulness of phyto-oestrogens in reduction of blood pressure. Systematic review and meta-analysis] Aten Primaria. 40(4):177-86.
  4. Hooper L, Kroon PA, Rimm EB, Cohn JS, Harvey I, Le Cornu KA, Ryder JJ, Hall WL, Cassidy A. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 88(1):38-50.
  5. Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr. 132(3):547S-551S.
  6. Doerge DR, Sheehan DM. Goitrogenic and estrogenic activity of soy isoflavones. Environ Health Perspect. 110 Suppl 3():349-53.
  7. Goodman MT, Wilkins LR, Hankin JH, et al. Association of soy and fiber consumption with the risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:294-306.
  8. Messina MJ, Persky V, Setchell KDR, et al. Soy intake and cancer risks: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr Cancer. 1994;21:113-131.
  9. Barnes S, Peterson TG, Coward L. Rationale for the use of genistein-containing soy matrices in chemoprevention trials for breast and prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 22():181-7.
  10. Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, Riccardi D, Cox CE. The specific role of isoflavones on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Cancer. 94(4):1166-74.
  11. Adlercreutz H, Mazur W. Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med. 29(2):95-120.
  12. Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Lucas EA, Smith BJ, Sinichi N, Hodges SB, Juma S, Munson ME, Payton ME, Tivis RD, Svanborg A. Soy protein may alleviate osteoarthritis symptoms. Phytomedicine. 11(7-8):567-75.
  13. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Shay NF, Erdman JW Jr. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 68(6 Suppl):1375S-1379S.
  14. Alekel DL, St. Germain A, Peterson CT, et al. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:844-852.
  15. Harrison E, Adjei A, Ameho C, Yamamoto S, Kono S. The effect of soybean protein on bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 44(2):257-68.
  16. Fanti O, Faugere MC, Gang Z, et al. Systematic administration of genistein partially prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats in a nonestrogen-like mechanism [abstract]. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(suppl):1517S-1518S.
  17. Arjmandi BH, Alekel L, Hollis BW, Amin D, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Guo P, Kukreja SC. Dietary soybean protein prevents bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. J Nutr. 126(1):161-7.
  18. Fanti P, Monier-Faugere MC, Geng Z, Schmidt J, Morris PE, Cohen D, Malluche HH. The phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss in short-term ovariectomized rats. Osteoporos Int. 8(3):274-81.
  19. Anderson JJB, Ambrose WW, Garner SC. Biphasic effects of genistein on bone tissue in the ovariectomized, lactating rat model. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:345-350.
  20. Malochet S, Picherit C, Horcajada-Molteni MN, et al. Do endurance training and soy isoflavones exhibit additive effects on ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in the rat? [abstract]. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14(suppl 1):S536.
  21. Kobayashi M, Matsushita H, Shioya I, Nagai M, Tsukiyama R, Saito M, Sugita T, Sugimura T, Yamamoto K. Quality of life improvement with soy sauce ingredients, Shoyu polysaccharides, in perennial allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Int J Mol Med. 14(5):885-9.
  22. Armstrong WB, Kennedy AR, Wan XS, Taylor TH, Nguyen QA, Jensen J, Thompson W, Lagerberg W, Meyskens FL Jr. Clinical modulation of oral leukoplakia and protease activity by Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate in a phase IIa chemoprevention trial. Clin Cancer Res. 6(12):4684-91.
  23. Meyskens FL. Development of Bowman-Birk inhibitor for chemoprevention of oral head and neck cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 952():116-23.
  24. Meyskens FL. Development of Bowman-Birk inhibitor for chemoprevention of oral head and neck cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 952():116-23.
  25. Lichtenstein GR, Deren JJ, Katz S, Lewis JD, Kennedy AR, Ware JH. Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate: a novel therapeutic agent for patients with active ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 53(1):175-80.
  26. Kim JI, Kim JC, Kang MJ, Lee MS, Kim JJ, Cha IJ. Effects of pinitol isolated from soybeans on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 59(3):456-8.
  27. Azadbakht L, Atabak S, Esmaillzadeh A. Soy protein intake, cardio-renal indices and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jan 9.
  28. Kim JI, Kim JC, Kang MJ, Lee MS, Kim JJ, Cha IJ. Effects of pinitol isolated from soybeans on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 59(3):456-8.
  29. Sites CK, Cooper BC, Toth MJ, Gastaldelli A, Arabshahi A, Barnes S. Effect of a daily supplement of soy protein on body composition and insulin secretion in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril. 88(6):1609-17.
  30. Burke BE, Olson RD, Cusack BJ. Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine. Biomed Pharmacother. 56(6):283-8.
  31. McFadyen IJ, Chetty U, Setchell KD, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Stanley E, Miller WR. A randomized double blind-cross over trial of soya protein for the treatment of cyclical breast pain. Breast. 9(5):271-6.
  32. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Ricci A, Geroulakos G, Ippolito E, Brandolini R, Vinciguerra G, Dugall M, Griffin M, Ruffini I, Acerbi G, Corsi M, Riordan NH, Stuard S, Bavera P, Di Renzo A, Kenyon J, Errichi BM. Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: the LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial. Angiology. 54(5):531-9.
 
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